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As a result, the captive population partially relies on wild males for breeding, while the wild pool is threatened by illegal captures to supplement the captive pool.

Both captive and wild pools also share common threats and conservation challenges, such as habitat destruction, poaching, increased conflicts with local human populations, and risks of inbreeding depression.

In 2015, we conducted 52 semi-structured interviews among elephant owners, keepers, and officials throughout the distribution of captive elephants in Laos – 41 out of 50 respondents indicated difficulties finding a captive mate.

Among owners of females, the main reason given for the difficulty in finding a captive male was the absence of captive breeding males (21 out of 43) because “there is no male nearby”, “males are kept far away”, “they (males) are engaged in logging and therefore not available for mating”, or “the few males living nearby” are “too young” or “sterile”.

Two other reasons were given equally (11): stud fees being too expensive, and their elephant being too tired for breeding.

Breeding practices radically changed since Laos transitioned to an open market economy in 1989.

The interactions between wild and captive populations of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) persist in most countries of the species distribution, notably through the reproduction between captive females and wild males.

However, these complex interactions have been poorly studied, despite their relevance for conservation of this endangered species.

Our objective was to assess the effect of these interactions on the viability of Asian elephant populations using an ecological-economic modelling approach with Lao populations as a case study.

Lao captive elephants are traditionally used as draught animals in the logging industry and share the same habitat as their wild conspecifics.

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